undefined
.
Eventually, the complete
version will be made available.
The State Monad!
Setup
In this lecture, we'll continue our study of monads via examples of specific monads to try to understand how they work. At this point, don't panic if you don't understand the big picture: each of the specific instances is useful in its own right. For the moment, think of monads as burritos, especially since they really are.
> {# LANGUAGE InstanceSigs #}
> module Monads2 where
> import Data.Map (Map)
> import qualified Data.Map as Map
> import Control.Monad (liftM, ap)
This module depends on an auxiliary module that you will define later.
> import State
Note: to load this module into ghci, you must first change into the current subdirectory so that ghci can find it. E.g.,
:cd /Users/sweirich/current/cis552/lectures
Alternatively, the State
module is a subset of the functionality in the standard library. We can also replace the import above with:
>  import Control.Monad.State
The State Monad
Now let us consider the problem of writing functions that manipulate some kind of state. We're going to start with some examples of state manipulation, written in an awkward style, and then show how monads can cleanly abstract the sequencing necessary for such programs.
By way of an example of state manipulation, let's go back to binary trees whose leaves contains values of some type a
:
> data Tree a = Leaf a  Branch (Tree a) (Tree a)
> deriving (Eq, Show)
Here is a simple example:
> tree :: Tree Char
> tree = Branch (Branch (Leaf 'a') (Leaf 'b')) (Leaf 'c')
A functional programmer would count the number of leaves in a tree like so:
> countF :: Tree a > Int
> countF (Leaf _) = 1
> countF (Branch t1 t2) = countF t1 + countF t2
On the other hand, consider how a C programmer would count the number of leaves in a tree. She might create a local variable and then then walk the tree, incrementing the variable at each leaf.
In pure code, we cannot modify the values of any variables. However, we can emulate this pattern with a store transformer  a function that takes an initial state as an input and returns the new state at every step.
In this example, the state, also called the "store", is an Int
(representing the current count) and a store transformer is a function of type Int > Int
. See if you can implement an appropriate store transformer.
>  The number of leaves in the tree that we have currently counted
> type Store = Int
> countI :: Tree a > Int
> countI t = aux t 0 where
> aux :: Tree a > (Store > Store)
> aux = undefined
Once you have completed the implementation, test it on the sample tree above.
ghci> countI tree
3
In general, a store transformer takes a current store as its argument, and produces a modified store as its result, where the modified store reflects any side effects performed by the function.
Next consider the problem of defining a function that labels each leaf in such a tree with a unique or "fresh" integer. This can be achieved by taking the next fresh integer as an additional argument to a helper function, and returning the next fresh integer as an additional result.
> label1 :: Tree a > Tree (a, Int)
> label1 t = fst (aux t 0) where
> aux :: Tree a > Store > (Tree(a,Int), Store)
> aux = undefined
Once you have completed the implementation, again test it on the sample tree above.
ghci> label1 tree
Branch (Branch (Leaf ('a',0)) (Leaf ('b',1))) (Leaf ('c',2))
SPOILER SPACE BELOW





















Here's my version:
> label1' :: Tree a > Tree (a, Int)
> label1' t = fst (aux t 0) where
> aux :: Tree a > Store > (Tree(a,Int), Store)
> aux (Leaf x) s = (Leaf (x,s), s+1)
> aux (Branch t1 t2) s = let (t1',s') = aux t1 s
> (t2',s'') = aux t2 s'
> in (Branch t1' t2', s'')
This example demonstrates that in general, we may wish to return a result value in addition to updating the store. For this reason, we generalize our type of store transformers to also return a result value, with the type of such values being a parameter of the ST
type:
> type ST a = Store > (a, Store)
The store transformer may also wish to take argument values. However, there is no need to further generalize the ST
type to take account of this, because this behavior can already be achieved by currying (i.e., treating multiargument functions as functions returning functions). For example, the store transformer for the tree above takes a tree and returns a labeled tree and has type Tree a > ST (Tree (a,Int))
, which abbreviates the curried function type
Tree a > Store > (Tree (a, Int), Store)
The reason we are talking about store transformers is that parameterized type ST
is a monad. What are its definitions of return
and bind
? If you get stuck, try expanding the definitions of ST a
in the types below and see where that leads...
> returnST :: a > ST a
> returnST = undefined
> bindST :: ST a > (a > ST b) > ST b
> bindST = undefined
That is, returnST
converts a value into a store transformer that simply returns that value without modifying the state.
In turn, bindST
provides a means of sequencing store transformers: bindST st f
applies the store transformer st
to an initial state s
, then applies the function f
to the resulting value x
to give a second store transformer (f x)
, which is then applied to the modified store s'
to give the final result.
Now see if you can rewrite this slight modification to label1
above. (We have changed the type annotation for aux
and moved the s
argument to the RHS.) Try to replace the RHS of aux (Branch t1 t2)
with applications of bindST
and returnST
. (Don't try to do the same with the Leaf
, we'll need something else for this case.)
> label2 :: Tree a > Tree (a, Int)
> label2 t = fst (aux t 0) where
> aux :: Tree a > ST (Tree (a,Int))
> aux (Leaf x) = \s > (Leaf (x,s), s+1)
> aux (Branch t1 t2) = \s > let (t1', s') = aux t1 s in
> let (t2', s'') = aux t2 s' in
> (Branch t1' t2', s'')
We conclude this section with two technicalities.
 We would like to just say:
type ST a = Store > (a, Store)
instance Monad ST where
 return :: a > ST a
return = returnST
 (>>=) :: ST a > (a > ST b) > ST b
st >>= f = bindST st f
However, in Haskell, types defined using the type
mechanism cannot be made into instances of classes. Hence, in order to make ST into an instance of the class of monadic types, in reality it needs to be redefined using the "data" (or newtype
) mechanism, which requires introducing a dummy constructor (called S
for brevity):
It is convenient to define our own application function for this type, which simply removes the dummy constructor. We do so using a record type declaration, which lets us name the arguments to a data constructor.
> newtype ST2 a = S { apply :: Store > (a, Store) }
ghci> :type S
S :: (Store > (a,Store)) > ST2 a
ghci> :type apply
apply :: ST2 a > Store > (a, Store)
(Records in Haskell are pretty similar to most other languages, but with a few convenient twists. Chapter 3 of RWH gives more details.)
ST2
is now defined as a monadic type (an instance of the Monad
class) as follows:
> instance Monad ST2 where
> return :: a > ST2 a
> return x = S $ \s > (x,s)
> (>>=) :: ST2 a > (a > ST2 b) > ST2 b
> f >>= g = S $ \s > let (a, s') = apply f s
> in apply (g a) s'
(Aside: there is no runtime overhead for manipulating the dummy constructor because we defined ST2 using the newtype
mechanism of Haskell, rather than data
.)
 Starting with GHC 7.10, all monads in Haskell must also be applicative functors. However, we can declare these instances using
ap
andliftM
which are defined inControl.Monad.
> instance Functor ST2 where
> fmap = liftM
> instance Applicative ST2 where
> pure = return
> (<*>) = ap
Now, let's rewrite the tree labeling function with the ST2
monad.
In order to generate a fresh integer, we define a special state transformer that simply returns the current state as its result, and the next integer as the new state:
> fresh :: ST2 Int
> fresh = undefined
This function should transform the store as follows: when given an initial store, it should return that store paired with the incremented store.
ghci> apply fresh 1 (1,2)
This function is another useful operation for the ST2
type besides bind and return. (The fact that ST2
is a monad is not the only important property of this type.)
Using this function, together with the return
and >>=
primitives that are provided by virtue of ST2
being a monadic type, it is now straightforward to define a function that takes a tree as its argument, and returns a store transformer that produces the same tree with each leaf labelled by a fresh integer:
> mlabel :: Tree a > ST2 (Tree (a,Int))
> mlable (Leaf x) = undefined
> mlabel (Branch t1 t2) = undefined
Try to write mlabel
both with and without do
notation.
Note that in either version, the programmer does not have to worry about the tedious and errorprone task of dealing with the plumbing of fresh labels, as this is handled automatically by the state monad.
Finally, we can now define a function that labels a tree by simply applying the resulting store transformer with zero as the initial state, and then discarding the final state:
> label :: Tree a > Tree (a, Int)
> label t = undefined
For example, label tree
gives the following result:
ghci> label tree
Branch (Branch (Leaf ('a', 0)) (Leaf ('b',1))) (Leaf ('c', 2))
A Generic Store Transformer
Often, the store that we want to have will have multiple components  e.g., multiple variables whose values we might want to update. This is easily accomplished by using a different type for Store
above, for example, if we want two integers, we might use the definition
type Store = (Int, Int)
and so on.
However, we would like to write reusable code, which will work with any store.
The file State ( lhs version ) contains a generic library for that purpose. You should switch to that file now and read it before moving on. The code below will use those definitions.
Using a Generic Store Transformer
Let us use our generic state monad to rewrite the tree labeling function from above. Note that the actual type definition of the generic transformer is hidden from us, so we must use only the publicly exported functions: get
, put
and runState
(in addition to the monadic functions we get for free.)
First, we write an action that returns the next fresh integer. (Note that the first type argument is the store, while the second is the result type of the monadic action.)
> freshS :: State Int Int
> freshS = undefined
Now, the labeling function with our generic State
monad is straightforward.
> mlabelS :: Tree t > State Int (Tree (t, Int))
> mlabelS (Leaf x) = do y < freshS
> return (Leaf (x, y))
> mlabelS (Branch t1 t2) = do t1' < mlabelS t1
> t2' < mlabelS t2
> return (Branch t1' t2')
Easy enough!
ghci> runState (mlabelS tree) 0
(Branch (Branch (Leaf ('a',0)) (Leaf ('b',1))) (Leaf ('c',2)),3)
We can execute the action from any initial state of our choice
ghci> runState (mlabelS tree) 1000
(Branch (Branch (Leaf ('a',1000)) (Leaf ('b',1001))) (Leaf ('c',1002)),1003)
Now, what's the point of a generic store transformer if we can't have richer states? Next, let us extend our fresh
and label
functions so that
each node gets a new label (as before), and
the state also contains a map of the frequency with which each leaf value appears in the tree.
Thus, our state will now have two elements, an integer denoting the next fresh integer, and a Map a Int
denoting the number of times each leaf value appears in the tree. (Documentation for the Data.Map module. )
> data MySt a = M { index :: Int
> , freq :: Map a Int }
> deriving (Eq, Show)
We write an action that returns the current index (and increments it):
> freshM :: State (MySt a) Int
> freshM = undefined
Similarly, we want an action that updates the frequency of a given element k
.
> updFreqM :: Ord a => a > State (MySt a) ()
> updFreqM = undefined
And with these two, we are done
> mlabelM :: Ord a => Tree a > State (MySt a) (Tree (a, Int))
> mlabelM (Leaf x) = do y < freshM
> updFreqM x
> return (Leaf (x,y))
> mlabelM (Branch t1 t2) = do t1' < mlabelM t1
> t2' < mlabelM t2
> return (Branch t1' t2')
Now, our initial state will be something like
> initM :: MySt a
> initM = M 0 Map.empty
and so we can label the tree
ghci> let tree2 = Branch tree tree
ghci> let (lt, s) = runState (mlabelM tree2) initM
ghci> lt
Branch (Branch (Branch (Leaf ('a',0)) (Leaf ('b',1))) (Leaf ('c',2))) (Branch (Branch (Leaf ('a',3)) (Leaf ('b',4))) (Leaf ('c',5)))
ghci> s
M {index = 6, freq = fromList [('a',2),('b',2),('c',2)]}
The ST Monad and the IO Monad
See STMonad for a final discussion about the ST monad and comparison with the IO monad.
Credit
The first part of the lecture is a revised version of the lecture notes by Graham Hutton, January 2011