*Note: this is the stubbed version of module MonoidFoldable. You should download the lhs version of this module and replace all parts marked*

`undefined`

.
Eventually, the complete
version will be made available. # Exercise: Monoid and Foldable

```
> {-# LANGUAGE DeriveFunctor #-}
> {-# LANGUAGE FlexibleInstances #-}
> {-# OPTIONS_GHC -fdefer-type-errors #-}
```

`> module MonoidFoldable where`

```
> import Prelude hiding (all,any, and, or)
> import Data.Foldable hiding (and, or, any, all)
> import Data.Monoid hiding (All, getAll, Any, getAny)
> import Test.HUnit
```

## Monoids

First, read just the 'Monoids' section of HW 03's SortedList module.

Note that this section defines the following function that tailors a fold operation to a specific instance of the `Monoid`

class.

```
> reduce :: Monoid b => [b] -> b
> reduce = foldr mappend mempty
```

For example, because the `String`

type is an instance of this class (using `++`

for `mappend`

) we can `reduce`

a list of `String`

s to a single string.

```
> tm0 :: Test
> tm0 = reduce ["C", "I", "S", "5", "5", "2" ] ~?= "CIS552"
```

The assignment shows you that numbers can instantiate this class in multiple ways. Like numbers, `Booleans`

can be made an instance of the `Monoid`

class in two different ways.

```
> newtype All = All { getAll :: Bool }
> newtype Any = Any { getAny :: Bool }
```

Make sure that you understand these type definitions. We are defining a type `All`

with single data constructor (also called `All`

). The argument of this data constructor is a record with a single field, called `getAll`

. What this means is that `All`

and `getAll`

allow us to convert `Bool`

s to `All`

and back.

```
λ> :t All
All :: Bool -> All
λ> :t getAll
getAll :: All -> Bool
```

Above, `newtype`

is like data, but is restricted to a single variant. It is typically used to create a new name for an existing type. This new name allows us to have multiple instances for the same type (as below) or to provide type abstraction (like `SortedList`

in the HW).

Your job is to complete these instances that can tell us whether `any`

of the booleans in a list are true, or whether `all`

of the booleans in a list are true. (See two test cases below for an example of the behavior.)

```
> instance Monoid All where
> mempty = undefined
> mappend = undefined
```

```
> instance Monoid Any where
> mempty = undefined
> mappend = undefined
```

```
> tm1 :: Test
> tm1 = getAny (reduce (map Any [True, False, True])) ~?= True
```

```
> tm2 :: Test
> tm2 = getAll (reduce (map All [True, False, True])) ~?= False
```

## Foldable

Now, read the section marked `The Foldable Typeclass`

in the MergeSort module.

We can use your Monoid instances for `Any`

and `All`

to generalize operations to any data structure.

For example, we can generalize the `and`

operation to any Foldable data structure using `foldMap`

.

```
> and :: Foldable t => t Bool -> Bool
> and = getAll . foldMap All
```

Your job is to define these three related operations

```
> or :: Foldable t => t Bool -> Bool
> or = undefined
```

```
> all :: Foldable t => (a -> Bool) -> t a -> Bool
> all f = undefined
```

```
> any :: Foldable t => (a -> Bool) -> t a -> Bool
> any f = undefined
```

so that the following tests pass

```
> tf0 :: Test
> tf0 = or [True, False] ~?= True
```

```
> tf1 :: Test
> tf1 = all (>0) [1::Int,2,4,18] ~?= True
```

```
> tf2 :: Test
> tf2 = all (>0) [1::Int,-2,4,18] ~?= False
```

```
> tf3 :: Test
> tf3 = any (>0) [1::Int,2,4,18] ~?= True
```

```
> tf4 :: Test
> tf4 = any (>0) [-1::Int,-2,-4,-18] ~?= False
```

## Application

Recall our familiar `Tree`

type. Haskell can derive the `Functor`

instance for this type so we ask it to do so.

`> data Tree a = Empty | Branch a (Tree a) (Tree a) deriving (Eq, Functor)`

And here is an example `Tree`

.

```
> t1 :: Tree String
> t1 = Branch "d" (Branch "b" (l "a" ) (l "c")) (Branch "f" (l "e") (l "g")) where
> l x = Branch x Empty Empty
```

We *could* make this type an instance of `Foldable`

using the definition of `foldrTree`

from hw02.

But, for practice, complete the instance using `foldMap`

.

```
> instance Foldable Tree where
> foldMap = undefined
```

With this instance, we can for example, verify that all of the sample strings above have length 1.

```
> tt1 :: Test
> tt1 = all ((== 1) . length) t1 ~?= True
```

Finally, look at the documentation for the Foldable class and find some other tree operations that we get automatically for free.

```
> tt2 :: Test
> tt2 = undefined
```

## Oblig-main

`> main = runTestTT $ TestList [tm0, tm1, tm2, tf0, tf1,tf2,tf3,tf4, tt1]`