*Note: this is the stubbed version of module State. You should download the lhs version of this module and replace all parts marked*

`undefined`

.
Eventually, the complete
version will be made available. # A Generic State Transformer

This file goes with Monads2.lhs.

Since state is a handy thing to have, the Haskell standard library includes a module `Control.Monad.State`

that defines a parameterized version of the state-transformer monad. This file is a simplified version of that library.

We will only allow clients to use the functions declared below.

`> {-# LANGUAGE InstanceSigs #-}`

This module includes an explicit export list. Only the types and functions listed below will be visible to clients of the module. Furthermore, the type `State`

is exported abstractly. Clients of this module will not have access to the constructor for this type, nor be able to pattern match it.

```
> module State (State, get, put, modify, state, runState, evalState, execState) where
> import Control.Monad (ap,liftM)
```

The type definition for a generic state transformer is very simple, and almost identical to the `ST2`

type from before:

`> newtype State s a = S { runState :: s -> (a, s) }`

We'll export the S constructor as the function `state`

:

```
> state :: (s -> (a,s)) -> State s a
> state = S
```

This type is a parameterized state-transformer monad where the state is denoted by type `s`

and the return value of the transformer is the type `a`

. We make the above a monad by declaring it to be an instance of the `Monad`

typeclass

```
> instance Monad (State s) where
> return :: a -> State s a
> return x = S $ \s -> (x,s)
```

```
> (>>=) :: State s a -> (a -> State s b) -> State s b
> st >>= f = undefined
```

Starting with GHC 7.10, all monads must also be a member of `Functor`

and `Applicative`

. However, we can use functions from Control.Monad to define these instances in a generic way. (You might try to redefine them yourself for fun!)

```
> instance Functor (State s) where
> fmap = liftM
```

```
> instance Applicative (State s) where
> pure = return
> (<*>) = ap
```

There are two other ways of evaluating the state monad. The first only returns the final result,

```
> evalState :: State s a -> s -> a
> evalState = undefined
```

and the second only returns the final state.

```
> execState :: State s a -> s -> s
> execState = undefined
```

## Accessing and Modifying State

Since our notion of state is generic, it is useful to write `get`

and `put`

functions with which one can *access* and *modify* the state. We can easily `get`

the *current* state via

```
> get :: State s s
> get = S $ \s -> (s, s)
```

That is, `get`

denotes an action that leaves the state unchanged but returns the state itself as a value. Note that although `get`

*does not* have a function type (unless you peek under the covers of `State`

), we consider it a monadic "action".

Dually, to *update* the state to some new value `s'`

we can write the function

```
> put :: s -> State s ()
> put s' = S $ \s -> ( () , s' )
```

which denotes an action that ignores (i.e., blows away) the old state and replaces it with `s'`

. Note that the `put s'`

is an action that itself yields nothing interesting (that is, merely the unit value).

For convenience, there is also the `modify`

function that maps an old state to a new state *inside* a state monad. The old state is thrown away.

```
> modify :: (s -> s) -> State s ()
> modify = undefined
```