e-Parking Meter Management System

 

 

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Initialization

 

SAFE

 

Head
Meter
Rotation

 

Failure
Recovery

 

Energy
Consumption
Model

 

Central
Station

 

Challenges

 

Ethics

 

Conclusion

 

References

 

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Head Meter Rotation:

 

One of the main objectives of the project is to maximize the life of the system as a whole. In our model of energy consumption (more on this later), we assumed a transmitter with two levels of power transmission. The lower level was used for communications among neighboring meters, while the higher level was used for communications with an access point which is potentially farther away.

 

By evenly distributing the role of head meter among all the meters capable of being a head meter, all the meters will dissipate power at about the same rate, thus maximizing the life of the system as a whole.

 

There were two possible approaches to achieve this. One option was a fixed, predefined rotation. However, this would have proven too inflexible and non-adaptive to be truly useful, e.g., in accommodating various failure scenarios. The second approach was to dynamically determine the next head meter at the end of each cycle. After the current head meter sends the accumulated information from the group to the central station, it selects whichever of its neighbors, from its routing table, has the highest level of battery remaining (highest HM Rank) and has connectivity to the access point, and announces this meter as the new head meter to the rest of the group. This latter approach will ensure that as long as the meters remain connected to the group, they will dissipate power at approximately the same rate in the long-run.

 

One advantage to this successor selection method is the guarantee that there will be only one head meter at a time, thus reducing conflicts and the only requirement is that each meter maintains an up-to-date measure of each of its neighbor’s remaining battery. This was accomplished by having each meter include its battery level in the update packets.