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The advancement of silicon electronic technology is slowing down as the field becomes more mature and the technology scaling approaches the quantum limit. However, there are many current and emerging impactful open areas of research such as digitally assisted mm-wave and THz self-correcting systems, quantum engineering assisted electronics, non-planar transistor based electronic systems, and low power mm-wave and THz signal generation, processing, and imaging. At the same time, the field of silicon electronics is rapidly becoming inter-disciplinary to advance further. 

 

 

 

Electronic Photonic Co-Design 

For a given silicon electronic technology, the performance of the active and passive devices are mainly limited by the parasitic components (such as undesired capacitance and resistance) and the substrate loss. The active device level limitations make the signal generation and processing rather challenging at sub-mm-wave and THz regimes. Also, parasitic components of the active devices together with the limited quality factor of passive components make the design of low phase noise oscillators and efficient power amplifiers rather challenging. Additionally, the loss and limited bandwidth in the high-frequency electrical interconnects, increase the power consumption of chip-to-chip or board-to-board data links significantly. Quantum engineering and innovative new devices (such as non-planar active and passive devices) may overcome some of the active and passive device level challenges and are important and promising open areas of research. Moreover, the performance of some of the RF, mm-wave, and sub-mm-wave systems that are designed in silicon based  technologies may be improved through the concept of optically assisted electronics. The low loss of the optical medium (such as waveguides), as well as high bandwidth available in optical frequencies can be employed to improve the performance of an existing electronic system. Low-loss optical delays and high quality factor resonators available in the photonic integrated circuits can be used to perform optically assisted electrical signal processing. Due to the small size of these photonic resonators, the optically assisted electrical signal processing may be performed in a smaller area compared to an equivalent all-electrical system. In opto-electronic oscillators, the high optical carrier frequency and low loss optical delay lines enable realization of low phase noise RF and mm-wave and sub-mm-wave oscillators.

Similarly, use of sophisticated analog, RF, mm-wave, and sub-mm-wave architectures in addition to near-zero incremental cost of transistors in high node technologies can improve the performance of photonic systems.

Examples are RF assisted phase noise reduction of semiconductor lasers and electronically controlled laser phased arrays. In the concept of electronic-photonic co-design, combining the advantages of devices, circuits, and architectures in both electronic and photonic domains can profoundly impact both fields resulting in advances in several areas such as communications, signal processing, imaging, and sensing. At Caltech, we have demonstrated laser phase noise reduction using a hybrid integration of an electronic chip and a photonic chip.

 

 

Bio-photonic Sensing

High sensitivity of photonic structures to environment perturbations enables realization of varieties of photonic sensors. At Caltech, we have implemented different types of resonator and non-resonator based optical bio-sensors for label-free bio-molecule detection. Several proposed bio-sensors are used for label-free green florescent protein (GFP) detection.

 

 

Low Power Integrated RF, mm-Wave, and sub-mm-Wave Circuits and Systems

Near-zero incremental cost of transistors in advanced silicon processes with operation frequencies approaching THz regime opens up many impactful and exciting research topics that may result in new applications in detection and sensing, communication, and bio-technology. Meanwhile, despite important achievements in battery technology, the recent trends show that the advancements in battery technology have been significantly slower than that of silicon electronic technologies. At the same time, the market demands more functionalities and better performance from new electronic devices making it essential for RF and mm-wave engineers to come up with new components, techniques, and more importantly architectures to improve the performance while reducing the power consumption.